Musical Dynamics indicate the loudness of music. We use the Italian terms piano and forte to indicate soft and loud. They are usually abbreviated p and f.
We can also add the word mezzo (m) to p and f to create mp (mezzo-piano) and mf (mezzo-forte). Mezzo-piano (mp) is moderately soft and mezzo-forte (mf) is moderately loud.
More than one p or f indicates a softer or louder dynamic, such as pp or fff.
List of Dynamics: